Human tolerogenic DC-10: perspectives for clinical applications
San Raffaele Telethon Institute for Gene Therapy (OSR-TIGET), Division of Regenerative Medicine, Stem Cells and Gene Therapy, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Olgettina, 58, 20132, Milan, Italy
Transplantation Research 2012, 1:14 doi:10.1186/2047-1440-1-14Published: 28 September 2012
Dendritic cells (DCs) are critically involved in inducing either immunity or tolerance. During the last decades efforts have been devoted to the development of ad hoc methods to manipulate DCs in vitro to enhance or stabilize their tolerogenic properties. Addition of IL-10 during monocyte-derived DC differentiation allows the induction of DC-10, a subset of human tolerogenic DCs characterized by high IL-10/IL-12 ratio and co-expression of high levels of the tolerogenic molecules HLA-G and immunoglobulin-like transcript 4. DC-10 are potent inducers of adaptive type 1 regulatory T cells, well known to promote and maintain peripheral tolerance. In this review we provide an in-depth comparison of the phenotype and mechanisms of suppression mediated by DC-10 and other known regulatory antigen-presenting cells currently under clinical development. We discuss the clinical therapeutic application of DC-10 as inducers of type 1 regulatory T cells for tailoring regulatory T-cell-based cell therapy, and the use of DC-10 as adoptive cell therapy for promoting and restoring tolerance in T-cell-mediated diseases.